Coffee's Adventure in History (575-850)
Coffee has been found in the country of Ethiopia (Abyssinia-Slaves country) located in the African continent. After its discovery, coffee began to be used for bread making and medical purposes in Ethiopia. Caffeine in it; It gives a stimulating, attention-providing, pain reliever effect. For this reason, coffee has been used a lot in medicine making and its name is called "magic fruit". Coffee, which was later traded to Arabia, first became famous in Yemen. Coffee has started to spread to Arabia, Asia, Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, Southeast and European countries respectively.
Discovery of Yemen and Coffee
Floor plant banned in many countries today
In Yemen, a plant called "Kat" was used before coffee. This plant was a plant that had a stimulating effect, just like coffee, but was known to have more side effects. Coffee was more attractive to the people of Yemen and important people. Unlike this herb, which had no side effects, it was very useful.
With the discovery of coffee, coffee houses started to open in Mecca, Damascus and Aleppo in 1530-1532. These coffeehouses were places where conversation, entertainment and social activities took place. However, when the coffeehouses started to be used for political purposes, the leading men of Yemen imposed a coffee and coffeehouse ban to prevent this situation.
Özdemir Pasha, the Governor of Yemen during the reign of Ottoman ruler Yavuz Sultan Selim, tasted coffee for the first time on a trip to Yemen and liked it very much. When Yavuz Sultan Selim liked the coffee he brought to the palace, a new rank was determined in the palace with the name "coffee shop head". In addition, the head of the coffee shop was definitely chosen among the most reliable people. When coffee started to spread rapidly in Istanbul and Anatolia, two Arab citizens opened the first coffeehouse in the Ottoman lands in 1544 in Tahtakale. Upon this development, Yavuz Sultan Selim lifted the coffee and coffeehouse ban in 1524. In Yemen, with the same practice, the problem was solved by taxing coffee and coffee houses.
Europe's First Meeting with Coffee
When the Ottoman Empire, which went to the siege of Vienna, gave up the siege, they left bags of coffee behind them. A Polish citizen who noticed the bags could not figure out what happened and showed them to the authorized people. When people and agents who were previously affiliated with the Ottoman Empire stated that it was coffee and talked about the benefits of coffee, he joined the coffee adventure in Europe. Coffee, which started to be traded from Istanbul to Italy, was later served by opening coffee houses in Europe and started to be produced in greenhouses by planting trees. Do not say “coffee”, this plant has rescued many countries from crisis moments and revitalized them. This plant, which has a long history, is the most talked about subject after oil today. The stimulating effects and aroma of coffee have impressed everyone. There are many types of coffee in the world, some of these varieties, perhaps most of us have not yet tasted. Let's give some information about the coffee tree before moving on to the types of coffee.
General Features of the Coffee Tree
Coffee Tree Cluster
This tree from the genus Coffea of the Rubiaceae family:
1) This tree, which bears fruit three years after planting, grows up to a maximum of 10 meters.
2) Its leaves resemble laurel and leather. This tree, whose leaves do not shed in winter, cannot withstand the cold due to its general structure.
3) It grows in tropical regions.
4) It likes abundant rainfall and humid environment.
5) Its flowers are white and have a pleasant scent resembling jasmine.
6) After flowering, fruits ripen and turn red. People who do not know the coffee fruit can compare it to cherry.
7) There are usually 2 seeds in its fruit. There are also fruits with a single core. However, this type of coffee is more expensive because it grows less often than double-stone fruit.
8) If they are not maintained and controlled, they begin to rot within 2 weeks.
Rumors About the Discovery of Coffee
There was a shepherd named "Kaldi" who lived in Abyssinia-Kaffa. While he was grazing the animals, he noticed a bush and saw that the animals were revitalized and their mobility increased after eating the fruits on the bush. Shepherd Kaldi, after eating these fruits and feeling the same effect, showed the fruit to others and took his place in the rumors as the first person to find coffee.
According to rumors, the prophet Solomon sees that everybody is sick in one of the cities he visited on a journey. Thereupon, the Angel of Gabriel tells the prophet to roast coffee beans. By listening to the prophet Gabriel, Solomon roasts coffee and heals the sick. Prophet Solomon is narrated as the first person to drink coffee.
Sheikh Şazeli is the first to drink coffee. The nickname of the sheikh, who is from Abyssinia, is Abu'l-Hasan Şazeli. According to the legend, Sheikh Şazeli, one of the first people to drink coffee, drank coffee to worship more at night.
It is also among the rumors.
His real name is Jamalettin Abu Abdullah Muhammed Ibn Said. According to the legend, Ez Zebhani, known as the first person to drink coffee, got better by drinking coffee when he got sick.
Development of Coffee in the World
The first Nescafe
In 1901, the Japanese Dr. Sartori Kato invented the first soluble coffee. Nestle took the first steps in the production of coffee dissolved in water in 1938.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Brazil was the country that produced the highest quality and largest variety of coffee. Currently, Brazil, Vietnam and Colombia are the countries producing the most coffee in the world. II. During the World War, coffee was included in the monopoly. Nestle launched Nescafe in 1980. The cost of coffee, which starts to increase every year, is of great economic importance for many countries. Farming is done in the Mersin and Anamur in Turkey. Coffee has been declared a national drink in America.